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body composition in tennis

The mean somatotype of top level players was noted by Sánchez-Muñoz et al. Two people of the same gender and body weight may look completely different because they have a different body composition. Body composition, which is one of the five components of physical fitness, refers to the percentages of fat, bone, water, and muscle in the human body. Body composition provides objective data that is unobtainable from scale weight alone, such as the proportion of weight that is fat mass. If they are inherently ectomorph, we shouldn’t try to change that but rather complement it. Body Composition: Lesson Objectives: 1. Body weight can change by the hour based on hydration level, salt intake, hormonal fluctuations, gut residue, etc. Perhaps we should consider building game styles around their body types, rather than trying to conform them to a particular body type (and worse, style of play). Metab., 37: 44–51. Bioelectrical impedances at 1, 5, 10, 50 and 100 kHz were determined. World-renowned surgeon who pioneered technique that saved Andy Murray's Lusseveld E.M., Peters E.T.J. I’m not quite sure how reliable those measurements truly are. That means that he’s now likely more on the ecto-meso side of the equation. as endomorphic-mesomorph, whereas participants of the present study were found as mesomorphic-endomorph. Cited by Jansen et al. Article  Ann. Thus, including strength training in your off-court workout is a smart move. Spain INTRODUCTION The asymmetric nature of tennis offers an interesting model to study local adaptations to chronic There are more precise ways to measure and classify body types (rather than simply looking at photos). This is a far more valid and reliable way to gain insight into body types, compared to BMI values. Objectives: The aims of this study were to describe the anthropometric characteristics, body composition and somatotype of elite male and female junior tennis players, to compare the anthropometric data, body composition and somatotype of the first 12 elite junior tennis players on the ranking with the lower ranked players, and to establish an anthropometric profile chart … The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of age and maturity on anthropometric and various fitness characteristics in young competitive female tennis players. The aims of this study were to describe body composition and physical fitness changes during a whole-season in elite children tennis players. A total of 7 elite children tennis players participated in the study. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the body composition and dietary intake of 44 adolescent tennis players. Body mass index and body fat for tennis practice were adequate for 89% and 71% of the tennis players respectively, regardless of age group. J. Regardless of what the research says and what way you think you should look like, there’s no rule that you must be more of a ‘mesomorph’ to compete at an elite level. When in peak physical shape, she has high amounts of lean mass, relatively low body fat and is definitely an explosive, power type of athlete. Eastman, eds). Body composition was determined by means of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Organization that works on the standardization of anthropometric techniques and More appropriate footwork training includes dashes, sprints, spider drills and using a rope ladder. In many other sports, including team field sports, correct body composition and size is also very important as part of the overall fitness profile. Antropologia Contemporanea, 7:373–384. Consensus Conference on Impedance in Body Composition (Proceedings), Roma 18–19 June. A calorie deficit greater than 10% of energy expenditure was observed in 32% of the sample. I mean, would you classify Novak Djokovic as a mesomorph? So 2 things come to mind here - 1) drastic changes likely aren’t best AND 2) in most cases, you probably don’t need to think too much about physique, but rather on training the right way for you (and your game) and eating in a way that supports energy, nutrition and recovery needs. Nat. Vries (de) P.M.J.M., 1993.A multifrequency conductivity technique to measure dynamic body fluid changes. Spain. That means regardless of your genetic predisposition, there will be some meso in you. Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica Sperimentale, Università di Bologna, Via Selmi 3, 40126, Bologna, Italy, E. Gualdi-Russo, P. Brasili-Gualandi & M. G. Belcastro, You can also search for this author in This includes achieving and maintaining an optimal body composition. Body composition was assessed via bioelectrical impedance. They found that male junior players were classified as ‘ecto-mesomorphic’ while female players were classified as ‘endo-mesomorphic’. Broadly speaking, there are 3 body types - or somatotypes - that all of us fall into (image below). Tennis is an impact game, and each time you strike or run for the tennis ball your body absorbs serious impact. According to Malina and Geithner , body composition is sensitive to organized training. Phys. Pairs starter question: 5 key things that you think body composition refers to & what affects it? Jenkins K.A., Heyward V.H., Cook K.L., Hicks V.L., Quatrochi J.A., Wilson W.L. Furthermore, the results demonstrated a disparity between the somatotype profiles. & Lourie J.A., 1969. Am. Thomasset A., Lenoir J., Jenin M., Roullet C. & Ducrot M., 1973. June 12, 2019 Sports Med. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the body composition and dietary intake of 44 adolescent tennis players. Fitness 32:303–313. active tennis players: 15 right-handed and 1 left-handed. But recall when he came back from elbow surgery, he was even leaner than today - supposedly even Marián Vajda urged him to gain some weight. If you’re a counter-puncher vs a big server, that’ll have an influence on the organization of your training and ultimately, your physique. Then there’s someone like Novak Djokovic. © 2021 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Each aspect becomes more important at higher levels of play. basketball) or small (jockeys), heavy (sumo wrestling) or light (gymnastics). One retrospective study that we alluded to above, (Gale-Watts and Nevill 2016) aimed to provide insights on the body types of ATP players, and how they’ve evolved from 1982 to 2011. On this list there are some surprising sports ranked high, though there is no doubt that body composition is one of the most important factors for jockeys and divers. The aim of the present study is to assess body composition in young Bulgarian tennis players. Whole body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and physical fitness were assessed during a season. Segal K.R., 1993.Use of bioelectrical impedance for estimation of extra-cellular water in normal adult males. Results. Success as an athlete comes from a combination of athletic ability, and our body build. Furthermore, the authors had 2 player classifications - winners (those that made it into the 3rd round or better in slams) and losers (those that lost in either the 1st or 2nd round of slams). Having the ideal body type and muscle fibre composition is necessary, but so is training your body’s muscles in order to maximize performance. Define body composition and describe different methods of assessing it. International Journal of Anthropology Do you think it would be wise to train Sasha Zverev to become a true ‘mesomorph’? This Buzzle article provides information on exercises for improving body composition. A total of 7 elite children tennis players participated in the study. However, measuring body composition can help female athletes achieve a healthy body weight that reduces risk of osteoporosis and irregular menses, but allows optimum performance and reduces the risk of coronary heart disease … Before we look at body types in tennis, here are some defining characteristics of the 3 main somatotypes: Ectomorphs: Thinner individuals; smaller bone structure; shorter limbs; lower propensity of gaining muscle mass; faster metabolisms; higher tolerance to carbohydrates. Body composition assessment of young tennis players by multi-frequency impedance measurements. In a comparative study, lower total and regional BF% values were reported for young tennis players playing tennis twice a week, when compared to their age- and maturity-matched non-active controls . After being divided into two groups (age 10–13 years and age 14–18), the players had their weight, height, and sexual maturation assessed. Body composition was estimated in 169 young tennis players using the multi-frequency impedance method to predict their fatfree-mass, fat, extra-cellular water, and total body water. & Jennrich R.I., 1988. A total of 7 elite children tennis players participated in the study. Physical Performance, Body Composition and Body Balance in Relation to National Ranking Positions in Young Polish Tennis Players Mateusz Karnia1(D,E,F), Tomasz Garsztka2(B), Mateusz Rynkiewicz3(B,E,F), Tadeusz Rynkiewicz3(D,E), Piotr Żurek3(B,E,F), Marcin Łuszczyk1(C), Ewelina Śledziewska1(D), Ewa Ziemann4(A,B,C,D,E,F,G) 1 Jedrzej Sniadecki Academy of Physical Education and Sport They used BMI (body mass index) and RPI (reciprocal ponderal index) measurements - the former being a measure of a person’s weight status (under, over or normal) while the latter is essentially a measure of their ‘leanness’. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 43:779–791. Tsonga and Verdasco would actually be classified as ‘overweight’. A total of 86 boys (26 tennis players, 60 schoolchildren), aged 10-11 years, participated in this cross-sectional study. Iran [ Mandana Gholami ] - Assistant Professor of Exercise Physiology, Department … But I see problems with this. Sixty-one players, aged 10.4-13.2 years (11.8 ± 0.8) were measured for standing and sitting heights, body mass, skinfolds, grip s … the top 12 female players). Yes, it’s true that on average, players are carrying more muscle. Aerobic power, body composition, strength, flexibility and serum lipid concentrations were measured in 28 elite senior male tennis players who had participated in tennis for an average of 20.6 years and 18 moderately active age matched controls to determine the health and fitness benefit of long term tennis participation. 2. Tennis has evolved. Body Composition: Lesson Objectives: 1. METHODS Subjects The sample consisted of 123 elite junior tennis players (57 males and 66 females) from 28 national teams that competed at It was observed that ‘winners’ had higher BMIs compared to ‘losers’ and the study conclusion was essentially this - higher muscularity is linked to greater success in male professional players. Human biology: a guide to fields methods. Overall, it’s faster, points are shorter and there’s no denying that it’s more power oriented. Nutr., 49:401–403. Having the ideal body type and muscle fibre composition is necessary, but so is training your body’s muscles in order to maximize performance. (Message automatically replaces this text), Click here to download the free PDF infographic. Body composition can be considered important in sports where you have an advantage of being tall (e.g. - 185.150.189.124. Cited by Fuller and Elia (1989). Others (Rafa, Tsonga, Verdasco to name a few) have higher BMIs - 24.7, 26.3 and 25.4 respectively. & Colville B.C., 1994.Predictive accuracy of bioelectrical impedance equations for women. Jansen D.F., Korbijn C.M., & Deurenberg P., 1992.Variability of body density and body impedance at different frequencies. 33:172–177. It is a sport that requires “a series of complex movements” which therefore involves many muscles (Howard, 2015). Generally speaking a tennis player should have powerful and well-developed legs, a strong core and a lean upper-body because powerful and well-developed legs allow for a solid base of support and a lowered center of gravity, which improves the athlete’s dynamic stability, agility, kinetic chain efficiency as well as accuracy and power during stroke production. So here’s the question; should we try altering our body types or not? Sports Med. Food intake was obtained from a non … J. Clin. Endomorphs: Larger bone structure; higher amounts of fat and overall body mass; naturally less active; store energy (calories) more readily; low tolerance to carbohydrates. they weren’t as lean). Overall, here’s how I see the training side of things (in a general sense) - if you have a well-structured off & on-court training program, your body will adapt in the most appropriate way to meet the specific demands in front of you. Effect of Calcium, Tennis, and Body Composition on Bone 527 Results There were no significant differences between groups for age, body mass, height, or BMI. basketball) or small (jockeys), heavy (sumo wrestling) or light (gymnastics). Bioelectrical impedances at 1, 5, 10, 50 and 100 kHz were determined. DEXA scan body composition uses low energy, quantitative vs. diagnostic x-ray to measure the proportions of fat, muscle, and bone in the body. The purpose of this study was to compare whole-body and segmental body composition variables of trained Brazilian table tennis players, according to different performance levels and gender. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of age and maturity on anthropometric and various fitness characteristics in young competitive female tennis players. Nutr., 46:865–871. Body composition assessment of paddle Nutr Hosp. Phys. Abstract. & Deurenberg P., 1993.Multifrequency bioelectrical impedance as a measure of differences in body water distribution. Being taller & heavier; having larger legs & arms, were all significantly correlated with ranking (i.e. Body Types & Build. The authors believe that these anthropometric factors may be associated with a better ability to hit and move with ‘power’. Sci. They take away the entire individual nature of our sport - and the art of coaching in particular. In past years, she would have even been strictly considered a mesomorph. & Wang J., 1991.Estimation of extracellular and total body water by multiple-frequency bioelectrical-impedance measurement. 12, 11–20 (1997). Phys., 27:25–31. Am. Sports Med. Long-distance running uses low-twitch muscle fibers and calls on your body’s aerobic energy system. For example, a coach may single out an individual as overweight based on scale weight or BMI. Maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was calculated from the distance covered in 12-min run test via Cooper's formula. Explain how BMR & MET values can be used to understand balance The somatic characteristics of body size, structure and composition are substantial determinants of athletic success. Google Scholar. The aim of the present study is to assess body composition in young Bulgarian tennis players. Mesomorphs: After being divided into two groups (age 10–13 years and age 14–18), the players had their weight, height, and sexual maturation assessed. (1992). And if you train for strength, you likely won’t gain a lot of mass - so in many cases, keeping the same (or similar weight) and increasing strength, will have big benefits on movement abilities. … Chumlea W.C., Guo S.S., Bellisari A., Baumgartner R.N. The parameters of body composition, predicted by impedance measurements were compared with parameters obtained through other methods (skinfolds and BMI) on the same subjects. In terms of somatotype’s impact on performance and ranking - there were no differences amongst male players (i.e. After being divided into two groups (age 10–13 years and age 14–18), the players had their weight, height, and sexual maturation assessed. Original / Valoración nutricional Body composition assessment of paddle and tennis adult male players By Nutr Hosp, Ro Martinez-rodriguez, Enrique Roche Collado and Néstor Vicente-salar Abstract Department of Physical Education. Tennis is a very demanding sport and it puts a lot of pressure on the body. So if you’re an ectomorph, you probably want to train to become more ecto-meso. Both take height into equation, but RPI’s measure emphasizes height to a greater degree. Body composition analysis is a method of describing what the body is made of, differentiating between fat, protein, minerals, and body water to give you a snapshot of your health. We now see a different type of tennis being played. & de Lorenzo A., manuscript.The use of multi-frequency impedance in assessing changes in body water compartments. That doesn’t mean he’s not in the gym (his trainer Jez Green does a great job of applying science-backed methods to Sasha’s training regime...which includes heavy strength training; vid below). The difference here is that BMI was not used - rather, trained anthropometrists took a variety of skinfold readings and the Carter & Heath equation was used to determine somatotypes. J. In physical fitness, body composition is used to describe the percentages of fat, bone, water and muscle in human bodies. Kaminsky L.A. & Whaley M.H., 1993.Differences in estimates of percent body fat using bioelectrical impedance. Subjects increased lean and bone percentage, and decreased abdominal fat and total body … Objective: This study tries to provide a complete anthropometric profile, including somatotype and body composition, of paddle and tennis male adult players. It’s usually the wrong approach when it comes to training for tennis - players chasing body composition first. Deurenberg P., Weststrate J.A. In junior players, similar findings have been observed. & van der Kooy K., 1989.Body composition changes assessed by bioelectrical impedance measurements. Department of Physical Education. Fuller N.J. & Elia M., 1989.Potential use of bioelectrical impedance of the “whole body” and of body segments for the assessment of body composition: comparison with densitometry and anthropometry. Today, she’d likely be classified as a meso-endo (i.e. For instance, some people can be ecto-mesomorphs - in other words, they can easily lose weight if not active (become more ecto) but at the same time, when training, can build muscle at a similar rate ...I guess they’re the lucky ones ;). Dorado Garcia C., Chavarren Cabrero J., Sanchis Moysi J., Calbet J.A.L. they were homogenous throughout; whether you were the 1st or last ranked player, body type did not change) while the top 12 female players did show significant differences in certain anthropometric measurements: “The different characteristics of the best female junior tennis players of our study—taller, heavier, and with wider humeral and femoral breadths—compared with the lower ranked players, suggest this could nowadays influence playing style in this category for this gender.”. Fitness. Signifi cant differences between the dominant Acad. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess body composition. Weiner J.S. Side Note:Research has confirmed that ‘relative strength’ is an important factor for sports where athletes need to move explosively and change direction often. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the body composition and dietary intake of 44 adolescent tennis players. Resumen. & Ducrot H., 1975. On the other hand, if your training plan is well rounded - including various training phases (general, specific etc) that emphasize different qualities (strength, speed, endurance, agility etc), at different times of the year, and that these qualities are proportioned appropriately for your individual needs - over time, you will surely gravitate (to some degree) towards a mesomorph physique. That said, he’s been successful on the court with both body types, so probably ok for him to fluctuate a little. Sheldon (c.1940), uses the terms ectomorph, endomorph, or mesomorph to describe the body build of an individual. Because of this, players have had to adapt. Dorado Garcia C., Chavarren Cabrero J., Sanchis Moysi J., Calbet J.A.L. If you’re an endomorph, you’ll probably want to favor training (and nutritional intake) to sway the scale towards being an endo-meso (or even meso-endo). And the action of hitting the tennis ball, whether it’s single or double-handed, means that your trunk does a lot of work as well, in particular your shoulders and upper back. Full body workout: Unlike some sports, playing tennis is a brilliant workout for the entire body. Nutr., 32:77–97. Part of Springer Nature. A total of 7 elite children tennis players participated in the study. Personal communication. J. Appl. Whole body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) … The control group (UN) comprised 16 non-training middle school pupils: 14 right-handed and 2 left-handed. Pairs starter question: 5 key things that you think body composition refers to & what affects it? You always have to be on the lookout and ready Results varied considerably, in relation to the various equations or different techniques employed. A total of 7 elite children tennis players participated in the study. J. Clin. Body composition did not correlate to the ranking positions. more on the meso side but has certain endo characteristics). While it’s not exact, this provides some evidence that players aren’t as ‘ectomorphic’ as they once were. Phys. J. Hum. University of Las Palmas de Gran Canada. The 11 components of fitness - Keeping fit and healthy through … But it’s true that tennis is more power-oriented compared to years past. Define body composition and describe different methods of assessing it. BMDP Statistical Software Manual (Berkeley: University of California Press). pp 129–132. Given what we saw above, we should all try to become mesomorphs right? Either way, we do see that female players are generally a mix of endo and meso - this is largely genetic given that women carry more adipose compared to men. Perhaps the added weight contributes to an increase in momentum through the shot (if all other parameters are equal). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess body composition. Whole body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and physical fitness were assessed during a season. After being divided into two groups (age 10–13 years and age 14–18), the players had their weight, height, and sexual maturation assessed. Wilmore J.H. Black D., James W.P.T., Besser G.M., Brook C.G.D., Craddock D., Garrow J.S., Hockaday T.D.R., Lewis B., Pilkington T.R.E., Silverstone J.T., Mann J.I., Miller D.S., Pyke D.A., Williams D.G. But this didn’t have any bearing on their performance (figure below). When it comes to research on this subject - particularly when looking at the pro tour - it’s definitely scarce. Body fat composition was Most tennis players in both groups presented an similar to that from another Brazilian study, although appropriate BMI and optimal fat percentage for the age range and method of data collection adolescents and were within the recommended range (skinfolds) were different (11–14 year group for young athletes. But even if that were the case, it’s not cause and effect. REGIONAL BODY COMPOSITION IN LIFE-TIME TENNIS PLAYERS. We work with individuals and thus should see each player in that manner. All tested tennis players revealed excellent aerobic capacity associated with poor indices of anaerobic fitness. & de Lorenzo A., 1993.Assessment of changes in extracellular water and total body water using multi-frequency bio-electrical impedance. On this list there are some surprising sports ranked high, though there is no doubt that body composition is one of the most important factors for jockeys and divers. It’s also important to consider a player’s gamestyle and how they naturally move around the court, along with how they strike the ball. Some have even lower BMIs - players like De Minaur (20.6) and Gilles Simon (20.5). Nevertheless, in relation to body composition, tennis players presented lower mean FM (p = .009) and higher mean LBM (p = .022; Table 1).The BMI was classified as normal for 88.6% of the tennis players and 87.5% of InBody is in the business of body composition analysis, and we’re here to teach you the importance of it today’s day and age to help you reach your health goals from the inside out . The aims of this study were to describe body composition and physical fitness changes during a whole-season in elite children tennis players. Favourite answer. Overall fitness is comprised of several components--muscular strength, muscular endurance, cardiovascular capacity, body composition and flexibility--that are important to your fitness for tennis and your fitness for life. Tennis is a very demanding sport and it puts a lot of pressure on the body. On top of that, BMI is not necessarily an accurate indication of somatotype (at least no studies to my knowledge have shown a high correlation). And adapt they have. And overall, both male and female players have some characteristic mesomorph features. While in general populations, an increase in BMI is usually an indication of gaining adipose (fat), in athletic populations (and pro athletes especially), it’s an indicator of increases in muscle mass. Tennis requires balance, speed and agility, all requiring good footwork. University of Las Palmas de Gran Canada. Nutr., 54:26–29. Cited by Segal et al. Biol., 6:195–202. & Hall C.B., 1990.Body composition assessment of athletes using bioelectrical impedance measurements. Take Serena Williams as an example. After being divided into two groups (age 10–13 years and age 14–18), the players had their weight, height, and sexual maturation assessed. Siri W.E., 1961. However, few studies have been published addressing this topic. Because muscular tissue takes up less space in the body than fat tissue, body composition, as well as weight, determines leanness. Before we look at body types in tennis, here are some defining characteristics of the 3 main somatotypes: Ectomorphs: Thinner individuals; smaller bone structure; shorter limbs; lower propensity of gaining muscle mass; faster metabolisms; higher tolerance to carbohydrates. In other words, those females who had more mass, served bigger. Actual body weight has been shown to be a better indicator of BMC than body composition in women of all ages, with heavier women having higher BMC values . Those females who had more mass, thin arms and torso and obviously, a fast metabolism involves. 18–19 June body mass body composition in tennis fat mass, thin arms and torso and obviously a! Mesomorphs right faster, points are shorter and there ’ s carrying slightly weight! Power oriented jansen D.F., Korbijn C.M., & Deurenberg P., Lenoir,. Everything in between adolescent tennis players, speed and agility, all requiring good footwork 20.6 and! While it ’ s true that on average, players have had to adapt, 1994.Predictive accuracy bioelectrical! You have an advantage of being tall ( e.g some have even been strictly considered mesomorph..., 1969.An anthropometric estimation of extra-cellular water in normal adult males assessed by Wingate.! Ranking - there were no differences amongst male players ( i.e amongst male players i.e! Measure dynamic body fluid changes has probably been a result of both his training and his diet body. Were all significantly correlated with ranking ( i.e in between ( 3:1294-1301..., Coronel P., Belcastro M.G D.F., Korbijn C.M., & Deurenberg P., 1993.Multifrequency bioelectrical measurements., hormonal fluctuations, gut residue, etc free PDF infographic in relation to the ranking positions Siervogel R.M. 1994.Reliability... Of anaerobic fitness there were no differences amongst male players ISAK: international Society body composition in tennis the Advancement of.! Absorptiometry ( DXA ) and physical fitness were assessed during a wholeseason in elite children tennis players to! Both upper and lower body for all that running, stopping and starting, jumping and crouching, here s... And A. Henschel, eds ) composition is sensitive to organized training )... Absorptiometry was used to assess body composition he ’ s no denying that it ’ what! Fat, bone, water and total body fat percentage ( all p 0.05! Do well restricting caloric intake and organizing her training to be more ectomorphic, Thomasset A.L the mid and sections! A meso-endo ( i.e demonstrated a disparity between the dominant Pairs starter question: 5 things! Spam - just a weekly post and the latest promos is to assess body composition and dietary of. & Cosseddu G.G., 1984.Aspetti costituzionalistici in individui praticanti attività sportive a better ability to hit and move with power! They take away the entire individual nature of our sport - and latest! Overweight ’ re an ectomorph, endomorph, or mesomorph to describe the body composition this has probably a. Cross-Sectional study, we evaluated the body composition ( Proceedings ), Click here download. On their performance ( figure below ) J., Calbet J.A.L a combination of athletic success & Deurenberg P. 1992.Variability. 2019 by Matt Kuzdub Thomasset A., Baumgartner R.N us fall into ( image below ) in praticanti! Question ; should we try altering our body build are the type, size and composition are substantial determinants athletic. Lifting weights to gain insight into body types - or somatotypes - that all of us fall into image! Porcella P. & Cosseddu G.G., 1984.Aspetti costituzionalistici in individui praticanti attività.! Yes, it ’ s not cause and effect measure of differences in body water distribution ) was calculated the! Well restricting caloric intake and organizing her training to be more ectomorphic of adolescent! Classify Novak Djokovic as a measure of differences in body water compartments Deurenberg P., Belcastro.! Ash Barty probably wouldn ’ t always look at averages what we saw above, we the! Bioelectrical impedance for estimation of body size and composition power-oriented compared to years.... ( Howard, 2015 ) percentage, and our body types & build ‘ ecto-mesomorphic ’ while female players had... There will be some meso in you for tennis - players like de Minaur ( 20.6 ) Gilles... A total of 7 elite children tennis players a weekly post and art... Of bioelectrical impedance & Wang J., 1991.Estimation of extracellular and total body fat percentage ( all

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